• System: a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole a number system.
  • Functionality or Performance: the desired characteristic of a system that is indicator of the status of the system. In this research functionality refers to the normalized functionality.
  • Social media: websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking.
  • Terrorism: the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.
  • Cyber systems: any combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications integrated to provides cyber services
  • Capability or ability: the ability to execute a specified course of action. These actions can prevent something or do something, or hasten another action.
  • IoT: the Internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices like vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enable these objects to connect and exchange data.
  • Embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
  • A security threat is defined as “a set of circumstances that has the potential to cause loss or
  • harm” [1]


  • AbbreviationsABS    Anti-Lock Braking System
    ACC    Adaptive Cruise Control
    AED    Automated External Defibrillator
    AMI    advanced metering infrastructure
    ARP    Address Resolution Protocol
    BAN    Body Area Network
    BCC    bodycoupled communication
    BCM    Body Control Module
    BSN    body sensor network
    CAN    Controller Area Network
    CHPr    combined heat and privacy
    CI    Critical Infrastructure
    CPS     cyber-physical system
    CRC    Cyclic Redundancy Check
    DAPs    data aggregation points
    DCS    Distributed Control Systems
    DNP3    Distributed Network Protocol
    DNP3    Distributed Network Protocol
    EBCM    Electronic Brake Control Module
    ECU    Electronic Control Units
    FCC    Federal Communications Commission
    FDI    False Data Injection
    GPS    Global Positioning System
    HEMS    Home Energy Management Systems
    HSM    Hardware Security Module
    ICCP    inter-control center communications
    ICCP    Inter-Control Center Protocol
    ICD    implantable cardioverter defibrillator
    ICS     industrial control system
    ICT    information and communication technologies
    IDS    Intrusion Detection Systems
    IoT     internet of things
    IPC    Instrument Panel Cluster
    ITS     intelligent transportation system
    LF    low frequency
    MAC    Media Access Control
    MDMS    Meter Data Management System
    MICS    Medical Implant Communication Service
    MITM     man-in-the-middle
    MOST    Media Oriented Systems Transport
    MOST    Media Oriented Systems Transport
    OBB    Out-of-Band
    PIN    Personal Identification Number
    PLC    Programmable Logic Controller
    PLC    Power Line Communications
    RFID     radio frequency identification
    RKE    Remote Keyless Entry
    RPC    Remote Procedure Call
    RPC    remote procedure call
    RPM    Revolutions Per Minute
    RSS    received signal strength
    RTOS    Real-Time Operating System
    SCADA     supervisory control and data acquisition
    SEMs    subscriber energy meters
    SHE    Secure Hardware Extension
    TCU    Telematics Control Unit
    TPM    Trusted Platform Module
    UHF    Ultra High Frequency
    USRP    Universal Software Radio Peripheral
    V2I    Vehicle to Infrastructure
    V2V    Vehicle to Vehicle
    WSN     wireless sensor network